Biology and Biomedicine

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Bio01 (XGT01) Biological applications of XRF microscopy

The effect of zinc on gastric ulcer healing has been investigated - mapped imaging of tissue samples shows evidence of zinc accumulation within the ulcerated tissue. In a separate study a fish otolith ('ear bone') has been analysed to reveal its heterogeneous elemental composition and physical structure.
Bio02 (XGT02) Elemental micro-analysis of leaves using EDXRF

Calcium micro-nodules are identified within mulberry leaves, and XRF mapped imaging provides a correlation between nodule concentration and leaf age. In a seperate study, the uptake of heavy element pollutants by plants is investigated, with high resolution images quickly acquired to show the distribution of lead through the leaf
Bio03 (XGT12) Elemental analysis of single rice grains using XRF micro-analysis

Individual rice grains are analyzed by micro-XRF to examine the effect of grain polishing. The concentration of mineral elemnts found on a grain can be related to the degree of polish.

Micro-electronics

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Elec01 (XGT03) Micro-XRF analysis for the Electronics Industry

A range of analyses with the XGT systems are discussed, including the identification of soldering defects. Elemental content can be characterised to the ppm level - ideal for the WEEE/RoHS regulations limiting concentrations of Pb, Cd, Br, Hg and Cr in electrical appliances.
Elec02 (XGT04) Quality control and defect analysis in the electronics industry using micro-XRF

Troubleshooting and defect analyses of components embedded within opaque resins are described, on both individual components and complete circuit boards. Quantitative analysis to the ppm level is ideally suited for ensuring compliance to the WEEE/RoHS directives.
Elec03 (XGT05) Fast thickness measurement of thin metal coatings by micro-XRF

The penetrating nature of EDXRF analysis allows multi-layered samples to be characterised with a single measurement. With high spatial resolution even microscopic features such as bonding pads on circuit boards can be interrogated for composition and layer thickness.

Environmental

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Env01 Micro-XRF analysis for lead contamination in toys

A plastic toy is analysed for the presence of lead within its many components. Spot analysis shows concentrations of this harmful element can reach as high as 0.3%. XRF imaging allows its distribution across the toy to be quickly characterised.

Forensics

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
For01 (XGT06) Fingerprint imaging with micro-XRF

High spatial resolution elemental mapping experiments are demonstrated to provide a useful method of fingerprint analysis in situations where traditional methods struggle. Fingerprints on glossy paper and finely woven fabrics have been chemically treated, and subsequently imaged.
For02 (XGT07) X-ray micro-analysis for pearl characterisation in forensic science

Simultaneous XRF and transmission x-ray imaging provides valuable insight into the composition and structure of pearls. Such information is vital for customs officials, who can quickly determine whether pearls are natural, cultured or imitation.
For03 (XGT14) Gun Shot Residue analysis using X-ray Fluorescence micro-analysis

Micro-XRF analysis of gun shot residues allows individual microscopic particles to be characterized for elemental composition. In addition, automated element imaging provides high spatial resolution element distribution maps, allowing particle shapes and sizes to be accurately analyzed.

Gemmology

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Gem01 (XGT08) Micro-XRF reveals ruby structure and composition

The detection and imaging of lead glass fillers in flawed rubies provides fast and useful quality assessment. In addition, analysis of x-ray diffraction peaks within the EDXRF spectra allows crystalline phases to be imaged with high spatial resolution.
Gem02 (XGT09) XRF micro-analysis of gemstone inclusions

Inclusions and flaws in gemstones can provide useful evidence about their origin and value. Microscopic inclusions in diamonds and quartz have been imaged, confirming their composition and allowing different types to be quickly distinguished.

Mineralogy and Geology

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Min01 (XGT10) Micro-XRF analysis for geological applications

Weathering effects in a large granite sample have been analysed, showing migration of iron species through the rock, whilst kimberlite sections have been mapped to show mineral location and grain sizes.

Museums and Archaeology

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Mus01 (XGT11) Micro-XRF for non-destructive analysis of museum and archaeological objects

Pigments used in an ancient Nepalese manuscript have been analysed and assigned and an ancient glass burial ornament has been probed to identify the specific colouring additives used.

Materials

Reference Title Type Brief Summary
Mat01 (XGT13) Micro-XRF analysis for metal debris and particle analysis

Fast analysis of microscopic metal particles is an important application for engineering (e.g. engine wear analysis). Micro-XRF scanning and spot analysis of specific fragments identifies their chemical composition.