Solid oxide fuel cells are based on the chemical oxidation of the fuel rather than its combustion and offers high efficiency without forming air pollutants. A unit cell typically provides a voltage of 0.7V, cells are therefore stacked (series connections) to provide useful voltages. Various geometries of cells do exist (planar & circular).
The operation temperature of the SOFC is usually high (over 1000°C), the materials in use (ceramic & ceramic coatings on metals) react under these severe conditions and lot of research is therefore needed where GDOES takes a role. New types of cells operating at intermediate temperatures “IT SOFC” (225°C in ref 4 for instances) are also developed leading to new classes of materials to be investigated.