Material Research

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Photoluminescence of InGaAs/GaAs Quantum Dots
InGaAs/GaAs and InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) have been identified as suitable candidates for various applications in the terahertz range by using their intraband carrier transitions.
GDOES, the Analytical Companion Tool for Magnetron Sputtering Deposition
Magnetron sputtering
Pulsed RF GDOES is a companion analytical tool for magnetron sputtering deposition. Magnetron sputtering is a type of Plasma Vapour Deposition. The vacuum chamber of the PVD coating machine is filled with an inert gas, such as argon. By applying a high voltage (RF, HIPIMS etc), a glow discharge is created, resulting in acceleration of ions to the target surface and a plasma coating. The argon-ions will eject sputtering materials from the target surface (sputtering), resulting in a sputtered coating layer on the products in front of the target.
Ellipsometric Characterization of Doped and Undoped Crystalline Diamond Structures
Characterization of diamond layers by SE: crystalline undoped diamond layers on silicon substrate.
In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was successfully applied to characterize the optical properties and the thicknesses of doped and undoped diamond layers. The sensitivity of this technique enables the doped layer to be distinguished from the undoped one in a sample consisting of a stack of these two layers. Moreover, an interface between the two layers has been detected. This work and others reported previously show clearly that ellipsometry is the technique of choice for the characterization of optical and structural properties of layered materials thanks to its sensitivity and the wide range of information it provides.
H&D Measurement of Hydrogen (and Deuterium) by RF GDOES
Measurement of Hydrogen (and Deuterium) by RF GDOES
RF GD OES is well known for ultra fast elemental depth profile of thin and thick films. All elements can be measured including Hydrogen (H) which is important in many application fields - for corrosion studies, for PV, in metallurgy, for the development of hydrogen storage materials and for all polymeric coatings studies to name a few. The most sensitive emission line for H is in the VUV range at 121,567 nm.
Characterization of MoS2 Flakes using TEOS
A flake of MoS2: the TEPL shift image derived from fitting the PL peak through regression analysis.
Both TEPL and TERS images are well correlated with AFM morphological images obtained simultaneously, and all are consistent in revealing the nature (number of layers) of MoS2 flakes. Upon deconvolution, the TEPL signal is even capable of revealing local inhomogeneities within a MoS2 flake of 100 nm size. Kelvin probe measurement supports TEPL and TERS measurements and adds to the power of such tip-enhanced combinative tools. TEOS characterization of 2D materials is likely to contribute to further deployment of these materials into commercial products through a better understanding of their electrical and chemical properties at the nanoscale.
Combined Raman and Photoluminescence Imaging of 2D WS2
Combined Raman and Photoluminescence Imaging of 2D WS2
Raman and photoluminescence spectroscopy reveal different aspects of the solid state structure of 2D materials. Raman and photoluminescence imaging performed simultaneously with one instrument reveals the spatial variation of the solid state structure and electronic properties of 2D crystals that is not revealed in reflected white light imaging. That ability should allow materials scientists to better design and fabricate electronic and optoelectronic devices based upon 2D crystals.
Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS)
Characterization of Carbon Nanotubes Using Tip-Enhanced Raman Spectroscopy (TERS)
The use of TERS to reveal the defects density in the structure of CNTs is of interest for a better understanding of the electrical properties of the devices made with such nano-objects. Not only defects concentration but also local chirality changes from the different radial breathing modes, pressure effect and strain distribution can be studied at the single carbon nanotube level through TERS.
EPA Stage 2 Disinfection Compliance with Aqualog
This application note describes the use of the Aqualog for monitoring regulated Dissolved Organic Matter (DOM) and disinfection by-product issues for drinking water treatment.
Number of Layers of MoS2 Determined Using Raman Spectroscopy
A combined (low-frequency and fingerprint) Raman map of MoS2 layers.
The two methods - Analysis of fingerprint modes (intralayer) and Analysis of low-frequency modes (interlayer) - give complementary results and allow the determination of the number of MoS2 layers. Method 2 (using low frequency modes) gives excellent contrast; however it does not show single layer regions (which is related to the nature of the modes, rising from interaction between at least two layers). Method 1 (using fingerprint modes) shows all the layers, but the contrast is poorer, particularly for higher numbers of layers. The best result can be obtained combining the two methods. All the measurements (low-frequency and fingerprint) were done using ultra-low frequency ULFTM filters which allow a high throughput measurement in a full Raman range, down to <10 cm-1.
An Ellipsometric Study of the Optical Constants of C60 & C70 Thin Films
C60 (a) and C70 (b) fullerenes.
Spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) is used to determine the optical constants of C60 and C70 thin films over the range 0.6-6.5eV (i.e. 190-2100nm). The information provided by the optical constants allows for a better understanding of the electronic structure of these materials.
Thickness and Optical Constants of Amorphous Carbon Coatings Measured by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry
Main properties determined by Spectroscopic Ellipsometry.
The UVISEL Spectroscopic Ellipsometer is the ideal tool for reliable film thickness and optical constants characterization of amorphous carbon coatings, even in difficult cases where the film thickness is very thin. Roughness, and interface "adhesion" can also been determined.
SWNT Quality Control by Raman Spectroscopy
RBM spectrum that represents tubes with at least 3 different properties.
Raman has shown a high potential in characterising the SWCNTs' structure. The correlation between knowledge about structure with physical and chemical properties about the tubes make the technique extremely powerful to control the quality of the SWCNTs for specific applications. Raman spectrometer capabilities like spatial resolution, spectral resolution and excitation wavelength versatility have been examined. Beside Raman, preliminary fluorescence studies are describing the potential of the technique.
Impact of Raman Spectroscopy on Technologically Important Forms of Elemental Carbon
Spectra of carbon films that require a fit with 2 and 3 bands.
The Raman spectra of the various forms of elemental carbon are very sensitive to the type of nearest neighbour bonding, and to intermediate and long range order. In many cases Raman spectroscopy is the technique of choice for characterization of carbon materials. Correlation of Raman spectral features with tribological properties can facilitate the deposition of carbon films.
Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots
Photoluminescence Spectroscopy of Quantum Dots
Quantum dots (QDs) have potential applications in optoelectronics, biosensing, biolabeling, memory devices, and sources of laser light.
Graphene Studies using Raman Spectroscopy
A Raman map of a graphene sample on a SiO2/Si substrate.
Graphene is a new nanomaterial which may partially replace silicon in microcircuits and computer chips in the future. In order to better understand its quality characteristics, fast reliable techniques that deliver the right property measures are needed. Raman spectroscopy has emerged as a key technique for studying this exceptional material.
Near-IR Photoluminescence of Quantum Dots
HORIBA Jobin Yvon’s NanoLog® spectrofluorometer, specially optimized for recording near-IR fluorescence from nanoparticles, includes a double-grating excitation monochromator, imaging emission spectrograph with a selectable-grating turret, and a variety of detectors.
Ellipsometric Characterization of Doped and Undoped Crystalline Diamond Structures
Characterization of diamond layers by SE: crystalline undoped diamond layers on silicon substrate.
In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was successfully applied to characterize the optical properties and the thicknesses of doped and undoped diamond layers. The sensitivity of this technique enables the doped layer to be distinguished from the undoped one in a sample consisting of a stack of these two layers. Moreover, an interface between the two layers has been detected. This work and others reported previously show clearly that ellipsometry is the technique of choice for the characterization of optical and structural properties of layered materials thanks to its sensitivity and the wide range of information it provides.
Derivation of Physical Parameters from Raman Spectra of Hard Carbon Films
A typical spectrum of a hard carbon film.
The Raman spectra of elemental carbon materials are known to be sensitive to polymorphy. For hard carbon films, the spectra of amorphous and diamond-like carbons can be band-fit to separate the contributions of the "graphitic carbon" (G band) from the "disordered carbon" (D band). The spectral behaviour of carbon films has been empirically correlated with thin film physical properties such as hardness, durability, optical transparency, electrical conductivity, thermal conductivity and corrosion resistance, and can be of use for prediction of these properties without extensive alternative testing. The DiskRam has been designed to automate the collection of Raman spectra from hard carbon coatings on computer hard disk media and the extraction of parameters that are well correlated with the properties of the films. The extracted information is output in spreadsheet format for SPC at a manufacturing facility.
Features and Benefits of Pulsed RF GD OES for the development of PV cells.

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