Pure carbon can occur in many forms reflected by the nearest neighbour bonds, and by midrange and long-range ordering of the solid. Different forms of carbon are being exploited in newly engineered applications. For example, diamond can be doped and used as the substrates for integrated circuits with properties superior to silicon, and hard carbon films are being used to coat computer discs.
Raman spectra have been shown to be uniquely diagnostic of the many forms of carbon, even when the material is present in small quantities or thin films.
The following discussion should provide an aid to the use of Raman spectroscopy for characterising carbons in the design, monitoring, and control of manufacturing processes.
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