Upconverting lanthanide-based nanomaterials exhibit a unique fluorescence anti-Stokes shift, which enables them to convert NIR wavelength excitation into visible shorter wavelength emissions (NIR to UV-Vis). Applications utilizing these light energy upconverters have been growing rapidly and include bioimaging, biosensing, solid-state lasers, photo-controlled delivery, photodynamic therapy, to name a few. Among various rare earth ions, trivalent erbium seems to be one of the most attractive choices due to its rich energy level structure which provides several potential emission channels in the short-wavelength part of the spectrum, including the most demanded green and blue regions.
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