Indium tin oxide (ITO) is one of the most widely used transparent conducting oxides because of its two chief properties, its electrical conductivity and optical transparency, as well as the ease with which it can be deposited as a thin film. As with all transparent conducting films, a compromise must be made between conductivity and transparency, since increasing the thickness and increasing the concentration of charge carriers will increase the material’s conductivity, but decrease its transparency.ITO is often used to make transparent conductive coatings for displays such as liquid crystal displays, flat panel displays, plasma displays, touch panels, and electronic ink applications. Thin films of ITO are also used in organic light-emitting diodes, solar cells, antistatic coatings and EMI shieldings. In organic light-emitting diodes, ITO is used as the anode (hole injection layer). ITO is also used for various optical coatings, most notably infrared-reflecting coatings for automotive, and sodium vapor lamp glasses. Other uses include gas sensors, antireflection coatings and electrowetting on dielectrics.
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