Monolithic integration of optical components on CMOS platforms is ongoing in the optical communications industry. CMOS offers a mature and robust platform, and therefore is logical for building optical- interconnect modules. These modules include light sources, modulators, multiplexers, and detectors on a single substrate. Silicon is the foundational material for CMOS technology, but as a material with an indirect
bandgap, it poses a serious obstacle to building light sources via CMOS-based integrated photonics.
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