Richard STOCKER*1, Puneet MATHUR*1, Asim MUMTAZ*2, Neophytos LOPHITIS*3
*1 HORIBA MIRA Ltd., *2 University of Liverpool, *3 Coventry University
This paper explores how to understand and use knowledge of cell ageing in automotive conditions. The key problems and considerations of ageing are considered, followed by an explanation of their causes. This is then used to discuss the tools and understanding required for including this in context of electrified vehicles design and control. What is shown is that ageing is complex, and the dominant underlying causes depend on cell design and usage throughout lifetime. To characterize this, testing, simulation and control approaches must combine, with methods for each of these discussed and evaluated. With future industry trends to higher energy density chemistries, longer pack usage and second life applications, sufficient degradation tools will become even more important in future.