Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin-film deposition technique based on the sequential use of a gas phase chemical process. ALD is considered a subclass of chemical vapour deposition. The majority of ALD reactions use two chemicals, typically called precursors. These precursors react with the surface of a material one at a time in a sequential, self-limiting, manner. Through the repeated exposure to separate precursors, a thin film is slowly deposited. ALD is a key process in the fabrication of semiconductor devices, and part of the set of tools available for the synthesis of nano materials.
Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum. The process is often used in the manufacture of semiconductors and in the production of thin films.
In typical CVD, the substrate is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit.
Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films and coatings. PVD is characterized by a process in which the material goes from a condensed phase to a vapor phase and then back to a thin film condensed phase. The most common PVD processes are sputtering and evaporation. PVD is used in the manufacture of items which require thin films for mechanical, optical, chemical or electronic functions.
Sputtering techniques include; Magnetron, Ion Beam, Reactive, Ion Assisted, Gas Flow.
Evaporation involves two basic processes: a hot source material evaporates and condenses on the substrate.
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