Carbon Analysis: Organic and Inorganic Carbon in Soils
The HORIBA EMIA Series allows simultaneous measurements of Carbon and Sulfur in different types of samples, ferrous metals, non-ferrous metals, inorganic and organic substances, soil, cement, clay, lime, etc. For many environmental applications, it is necessary to know not only the Total Carbon (TC) concentration in the sample, but especially the Total Organic Carbon (TOC) and Total Inorganic Carbon (TIC). The aim of his application note is to explain the determination of organic and inorganic carbon in soils and how to prepare samples to eliminate inorganic carbon (carbonates) in these soils.
Oxygen and Nitrogen determination in Boron Nitride
Boron Nitride (BN) has become a popular material as it can be used in many fields as varied as semiconductors, photovoltaics, cutting tools, lubrication or even nano tubes depending of its crystallographic form. The success of this manufactured ceramic is due to its excellent heat conductivity, chemical stability, electrical insulation, inertness and, finally, machinability.
Inpurity levels, especially oxygen, can have a negative influence on the mechanical and thermic properties of the ceramic as B2O3 is formed at sintering temperature. High purity BN is also needed in semiconductor applications. On the other hand, in the synthesis of c-BN (cubic) from h-BN (hexagonal) a small amount of oxygen is positive as it decreases the conversion temperature and pressure.
This application note will show the relevance of the EMGA-920 to measure high levels of nitrogen while simultaneously determininig low levels of Oxygen with good precision.
Oxygen and Nitrogen determination in Aluminium Nitride
Aluminium nitride is principally used for its high thermal conductivity combined with a high electrical resistivity. So it's an interesting heat dissipator in electric and electronic applications especially as its thermal expansion coefficient is close to the silicon. Moreover, AIN is resistant to oxidation and abrasion. Aluminium nitride is synthesized by reduction of alumina under N2 atmosphere. In its production, circuit board sintering processes are used. To make the material denser the always remaining surface oxygen of the AIN grains is used in the presence of a catalyst (rare earth or alkaline earth oxides). So, some remaining oxide is necessary for a good sintering. But, as oxygen content degrades the final product properties, the oxygen level in AIN powder should be adjusted as to be mostly eliminated at the end of sintering. That means that variation in oxygen % should stay within a range of 0.2% mass. This application note will show the relevance of the EMGA-920 to measure high level of Nitrogen while maintaining the needed precision for Oxygen determination in AIN.
Each year the marketplace sees increasing demands for the analysis of hydrogen contained in various sample materials. It is now recognized that hydrogen analysis is crucial not only in the steel industry but also in the manufacture of such high purity metals as aluminum, copper, titanium and in the development of new alloys and new materials.
Copper in reddish metal, it is malleable, ductile and an extremely good conductor of both heat and electricity. Copper metal is widely used for electrical wiring, water piping, and corrosion resistant parts, either pure or in alloy such as brass and bronze. Carbon and Sulfur are considered as impurities, so it is important to measure and check the Copper purity.
No need to sample—simply take your readings directly in place in locations such as reaction vessels
Collecting samples during a continuous process can be tedious and even dangerous if hazardous materials are involved.