Measuring Battery Emissions: Thermal Runaway

Why understanding Li-ion battery thermal runaway emissions is important

Lithium-ion (Li-ion) batteries have revolutionized the modern tech landscape, underpinning everything from smartphones to electric vehicles.

A key concern associated with these batteries is the phenomenon of thermal runaway—a self-sustained, exothermic reaction that can result in fire or even explosions.

Battery emissions generated during a thermal runaway event

During a thermal runaway event, the rapid breakdown of battery components generates heat and releases various hazardous gases. Measuring these emissions is not just critical for safety, but also for advancing battery designs and understanding their potential environmental and health impacts. Understanding the gases generated at each stage of thermal runaway can help with early prediction methodologies, environmental and human health considerations, and cell selection based around safe and environmentally friendly emissions.

HORIBA’s approach to measuring battery emissions during a thermal event

We are a global leader in precision measurement and analysis solutions. With decades of emissions measurement experience, our suite of gas and particle measurement equipment includes Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR), Mass Spectroscopy (MS), and particle measurement. Together, they provide a comprehensive real-time quantification of battery emissions during a thermal runaway event. Combined with our IP around thermal runaway system design, we provide a solution for initiating and evaluating thermal runaway behavior, including emissions.

Measuring Battery Emissions Test Equipment


FTIR Exhaust Gas Analyzer: 5Hz sampling rate and simultaneously measure the concentrations of multiple components including NH3, CH4, and CO2.


Hydrogen Gas Analyzer: High-accuracy, high-resolution hydrogen gas analyzer designed to support the development of the hydrogen supply chain.


Solid Particle Counting System: Can complete engine/vehicle certification testing for PN defined in the latest regulations, which requires complied dilution systems.


Continuous Particulate Monitor with X-ray Fluorescence: Combines X-Ray Fluorescence & Beta-ray attenuation for accurate measurement of inorganic compounds.

Post Battery Emissions Test Particle Analyzers

Partica LA-960V2

Laser Scattering Particle Size Distribution Analyzer: Measures particle size distribution of emissions using laser diffraction and image analysis.


Particle-Correlated Confocal Raman Microscope: Performs particle morphology analysis and automated chemical identification of each particle. 


X-Ray Analytical Microscope (Micro-XRF): Automated analysis of elemental composition of each particle. Data can be correlated with Raman microscopy data for complete particle morphology-chemical identification analysis.

nanoGPS navYX™

Particle-Correlated SEM Imaging & Analysis Solution: Automated analysis of each particle with multiple characterization methods, including SEM, AFM, FTIR, Raman, and more.

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