Natural rocks composing the Earth are complex. They consist of an aggregate of one or more minerals. Each mineral can be defined by its chemical composition and its crystalline structure and sometimes can also contain fluid inclusions. Geologists need a powerful characterization technique to get detailed information on the rock formation history. Raman spectroscopy is extremely information-rich (chemical identification, characterization of molecular structures, effects of bonding, environment and stress on a sample). With its non-destructive properties and high spatial resolution (< 1 μm), it is thus a tool of choice for geological studies.