Geology

Geological science is the study the Earth's physical structure and substances, from the history of rocks, to the processes that act on them. HORIBA Raman spectroscopy systems provide fast and non-destructive identification of minerals, in the distribution of the different compounds or phases in geological settings. HORIBA’s particle size solutions enable the analysis of soils and sediments and can be used for processing and quality control of processed mineral products

Interest of the Month

Derivation of Physical Parameters from Raman Spectra of Hard Carbon Films

The Raman spectra of elemental carbon materials are known to be sensitive to polymorphy. For hard carbon films, the spectra of amorphous and diamond-like carbons can be band-fit to separate the contributions of the “graphitic carbon» (G band) from the «disordered carbon» (D band).

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Study of geological materials with Raman Spectroscopy

Natural rocks composing the Earth are complex. They consist of an aggregate of one or more minerals. Each mineral can be defined by its chemical
composition and its crystalline structure and sometimes can also contain fluid inclusions. Geologists need a powerful characterization technique to
get detailed information on the rock formation history. 

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Applications

Optical Micro-spectroscopies on a Path to Identify the Source of Life
Optical Micro-spectroscopies on a Path to Identify the Source of Life
In this article, we present how our Raman and X-Ray Fluorescence microscopies can be combined to shed some light on the origins of the universe. We show some examples on a meteorite piece and on water inclusion in quartz matrix.
Characterization of Pyrite Inclusions in Lapis Lazuli Using X-ray Fluorescence Micro-imaging
Characterization of Pyrite Inclusions in Lapis Lazuli Using X-ray Fluorescence Micro-imaging
Lapis lazuli is a deep-blue metamorphic rock used as a semiprecious stone which contains inclusions that can impact its value. Pyrite impurities and major elements distribution are studied with the XGT-9000, HORIBA’s new X-ray microscope.
Study of geological materials with Raman Spectroscopy
Natural rocks composing the Earth are complex. They consist of an aggregate of one or more minerals. Each mineral can be defined by its chemical composition and its crystalline structure and sometimes can also contain fluid inclusions. Geologists need a powerful characterization technique to get detailed information on the rock formation history. Raman spectroscopy is extremely information-rich (chemical identification, characterization of molecular structures, effects of bonding, environment and stress on a sample). With its non-destructive properties and high spatial resolution (< 1 μm), it is thus a tool of choice for geological studies.
Particle Analysis in Mining and Minerals
Many particles encountered in mining are characterized by sieves. Recent advances make image analysis practical for samples with sizes larger than several microns in diameter. As particle size decreases, laser diffraction becomes the technique of choice.
Frac Sand and Proppant Size and Shape
Hydraulic fracturing is used in the oil and gas industry to increase the flow of oil and/or gas from a well. Proppants are pumped into the oil well with fracturing fluid to hold the fissures open. The proppant size, shape, and mechanical strength influences the integrity of the newly created fractures, and therefore the flow of oil and gas out of the well.
Ellipsometric Characterization of Doped and Undoped Crystalline Diamond Structures
Characterization of diamond layers by SE: crystalline undoped diamond layers on silicon substrate.
In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was successfully applied to characterize the optical properties and the thicknesses of doped and undoped diamond layers. The sensitivity of this technique enables the doped layer to be distinguished from the undoped one in a sample consisting of a stack of these two layers. Moreover, an interface between the two layers has been detected. This work and others reported previously show clearly that ellipsometry is the technique of choice for the characterization of optical and structural properties of layered materials thanks to its sensitivity and the wide range of information it provides.
Ellipsometric Characterization of Doped and Undoped Crystalline Diamond Structures
Characterization of diamond layers by SE: crystalline undoped diamond layers on silicon substrate.
In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was successfully applied to characterize the optical properties and the thicknesses of doped and undoped diamond layers. The sensitivity of this technique enables the doped layer to be distinguished from the undoped one in a sample consisting of a stack of these two layers. Moreover, an interface between the two layers has been detected. This work and others reported previously show clearly that ellipsometry is the technique of choice for the characterization of optical and structural properties of layered materials thanks to its sensitivity and the wide range of information it provides.
Characterization of Pyrite Inclusions in Lapis Lazuli Using X-ray Fluorescence Micro-imaging
Characterization of Pyrite Inclusions in Lapis Lazuli Using X-ray Fluorescence Micro-imaging
Lapis lazuli is a deep-blue metamorphic rock used as a semiprecious stone which contains inclusions that can impact its value. Pyrite impurities and major elements distribution are studied with the XGT-9000, HORIBA’s new X-ray microscope.
Ellipsometric Characterization of Doped and Undoped Crystalline Diamond Structures
Characterization of diamond layers by SE: crystalline undoped diamond layers on silicon substrate.
In this work, spectroscopic ellipsometry (SE) was successfully applied to characterize the optical properties and the thicknesses of doped and undoped diamond layers. The sensitivity of this technique enables the doped layer to be distinguished from the undoped one in a sample consisting of a stack of these two layers. Moreover, an interface between the two layers has been detected. This work and others reported previously show clearly that ellipsometry is the technique of choice for the characterization of optical and structural properties of layered materials thanks to its sensitivity and the wide range of information it provides.
Laser Diffraction Analysis of Soils and Sediments
Measurement of the particle size of soil and sediment sample is a critical part of understanding the geological history of a particular area.
Snow, Ice, and Particle Size
Several different compounds are used for melting snow. The melting and spreading process is a function of particle size.
Soils, Sand, and Sediment Particle Size
HORIBA systems have been used successfully for a range of soil and sediment applications. The LA-960 is uniquely qualified since the dynamic range is the broadest of any system. For solid samples exceeding 5 mm, the CAMSIZER can provide size and shape information.
Particle Sizing of Sediments
Particle characterization is an important tool for studying current environmental effects related to pollution transport, erosion, and sediment transport.
Zeta Potential of Clay for Wastewater Treatment
In this note, the effect of coagulant choice and concentration on the treatment of suspended clays is analyzed.
Wastewater Treatment Optimization with Zeta Potential
Suspended solids are a common impurity in wastewater from industrial and mining operations. In order for water clarity, the suspended solids are often allowed to settle. The duration of these processes is a strong function of the particle size. Thus, if particles can be made to aggregate, the settling process is shorter and the treatment operation is faster and less expensive.

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