The ion-exchange process is a convenient method for the fabrication of channel waveguides in crystals with high nonlinear susceptibility and electro-optic coefficients. The idea is to create a channel in which the refractive index has been sufficiently changed to achieve laser beam confinement (wave guiding) while retaining the high nonlinear optical susceptibility of the host crystal. Through either quasi-phase matching in continuous waveguides or balanced phase matching in segmented waveguides, second harmonic generation can be achieved to produce short wavelength laser output from an end fired near infrared laser beam.
We apply three dimensional (3D) Raman imaging to understand and characterize the changes to the chemical bonding and crystalline structure as well as measure the volumetric structure of the waveguide segments.
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