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Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD)

Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a thin-film deposition technique based on the sequential use of a gas phase chemical process. ALD is considered a subclass of chemical vapour deposition. The majority of ALD reactions use two chemicals, typically called precursors. These precursors react with the surface of a material one at a time in a sequential, self-limiting, manner. Through the repeated exposure to separate precursors, a thin film is slowly deposited. ALD is a key process in the fabrication of semiconductor devices, and part of the set of tools available for the synthesis of nano materials. 

Plasma-Enhanced ALD is a technique where plasma is used to enhance an atomic layer deposition (ALD) process, forming a thin-film coating. Like standard ALD, PEALD reacts specific chemical precursors but also cycles an RF-plasma to better control chemical reactions within the process. This allows high levels of conformality in production. It also requires a much lower temperature than standard ALD, making it suitable for temperature-sensitive materials. 

Chemical Vapor Deposition (CVD)

Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a deposition method used to produce high quality, high-performance, solid materials, typically under vacuum. The process is often used in the manufacture of semiconductors and in the production of thin films. 

In typical CVD, the substrate is exposed to one or more volatile precursors, which react and/or decompose on the substrate surface to produce the desired deposit. CVD has an extended family of processes which build upon the primary principles of CVD most commonly these are: 

Atmospheric pressure CVD (APCVD) 

Low-pressure CVD (LPCVD) 

Ultrahigh vacuum CVD (UHVCVD)

Aerosol assisted CVD (AACVD) 

Direct liquid injection CVD (DLICVD)

Plasma-Enhanced CVD (PECVD) 

Remote plasma-enhanced CVD (RPECVD)

Atomic-layer Deposition. 

Metalorganic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) 

Physical Vapor Deposition (PVD)

Physical vapor deposition (PVD) describes a variety of vacuum deposition methods which can be used to produce thin films and coatings. PVD is characterized by a process in which the material goes from a condensed phase to a vapor phase and then back to a thin film condensed phase. The most common PVD processes are sputtering and evaporation. PVD is used in the manufacture of items which require thin films for mechanical, optical, chemical or electronic functions. 

Sputtering techniques include; Magnetron, Ion Beam, Reactive, Ion Assisted, Gas Flow. 

Evaporation involves two basic processes: a hot source material evaporates and condenses on the substrate. 

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